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Gluteus Maximus: Functional Anatomy Guide

The gluteus maximus (G. gloutos, buttock. L. maximus, largest.) is not only the largest buttock muscle, but the largest muscle in the human body, period. Its main responsibility is hip extension, and it’s classified as part of the superficial gluteal region. The gluteus maximus is the outermost buttock muscle. It lies superficial to the gluteus minimus and the …

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Gluteus Minimus: Functional Anatomy Guide

The gluteus minimus (G. gloutos, buttock. L. minimus, smallest) is the smallest and deepest of the three buttock muscles. Its primary responsibility is hip abduction. It is like a mini version of the gluteus medius, sharing a similar shape, location and function. The gluteus minimus constitutes part of the superficial gluteal region. It is in the deepest …

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Hamstring Muscles: Functional Anatomy Guide

The average gym rat uses the term “hamstrings” to refer to the muscles on the back of thigh, whose primary function is knee flexion. If you want to get really technical, “hamstrings” technically refer to the tendons on either end of the posterior thigh muscles, namely the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris (which includes both …

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Brachioradialis: Functional Anatomy Guide

The brachioradialis (G. brachion, arm. L. radius, stake or rod [shape of radius bone]) is a large forearm muscle, whose name refers to its connection between the upper arm and radius. It is located in the superficial posterior compartment of the forearm, which includes many of the wrist extensor muscles… …But unlike the wrist extensors, the brachioradialis is mostly …

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Pectoralis Minor: Functional Anatomy Guide

The pectoralis minor (L. pectus, chest ; minor, smaller.) is the smaller and lesser-known of the two chest muscles. It helps stabilize the scapula and is the prime mover in scapular downward rotation. It’s involved in other scapular movements, which I’ll cover later. It is technically classified as part of the anterior axioappendicular muscle group. …

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Soleus: Functional Anatomy Guide

The soleus (L. solea, sandal.) is the smaller of the two major calf muscles; the other muscle being the gastrocnemius (gastroc). Fun fact: It was originally named after its resemblance to the flat, sandal-shaped sole fish, whose name also comes from the Latin word, solea. The soleus and gastroc are both prime movers in ankle plantarflexion when …

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Biceps Brachii: Functional Anatomy Guide

The biceps brachii (L. biceps, two-headed [bis, twice ; caput, head] ; G. brachion, arm.), commonly known as the biceps, is the prominent two-headed muscle of the arm. It acts on the elbow, forearm and shoulder, with it’s main role being a synergist in elbow flexion. Note: The biceps is most active in elbow flexion when the forearm is supinated, and …

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